Halacha Weekly ~ Parshas Mikeitz Havdalah and Neiros Chanukah

Halacha Weekly ~ Parshas Mikeitz Havdalah and Neiros Chanukah


The בית יוסף (סימן תרפ”א) brings a machlokes when to light theנרות חנוכה  in shul on Motzei Shabbos.  The תרומת הדשן says it is lit before one makes הבדלה על הכוס. הרב רב דוד אבודרהם says it is lit after הבדלה על הכוס.  The דרכי משה says that the minhag is to light them before havdalah. The מחבר (תרפ”א א’) also paskens מדליקין נר חנוכה בבית הכנסת קודם הבדלה.

There are different minhagim when to light in Shul.  The minhag in Lederman’s shul ע”פ החזון איש, is to light before ויהי נועם.  The minhag by Reb Chaim Brisker zt”l was to light after ואתה קדוש but before קדיש תתקבל.  The Mishnah Berurah says to light before ויתן לך.  Where ויתן לך is not said it should be lit before עלינו.  This is the accepted practice.

The רמ”א adds that for the נרות חנוכה at home, since he already heard havdalah in shul, he should for sure light first and only afterwards make havdalah.  The אליה רבה asks on the reasoning of the רמ”א, that one does not have in mind to be יוצא with havdalah in the בית הכנסת.

To understand the question of the אליה רבה we need to understand the reason for havdalah in shul.  The מחבר (סימן רצ”ה סעיף ו’) says מבדיל שליח ציבור כדי להוציא מי שאין לו יין – the chazzan makes havdalah in shul for those who do not have wine at home.  The Mishnah Berurah explains that if one has wine at home it is better to make havdalah at home for his family.  The מחבר (סימן רצ”ו סעיף ז’) also says אפילו שמעו כל בני הבית הבדלה בבית הכנסת, אם נתכוונו שלא לצאת מבדילים בבית – even if the whole family heard havdalah in shul, if they did not have in mind to be יוצא with that havdalah, they must make havdalah at home.  The Mishnah Berurah quotes the לבוש who says, that today people don’t have in mind to be יוצא in shul since they will be making havdalah at home.  It is therefore considered that they never made havdalah.  The מג”א בשם הסמ”ע says that תלמידי חכמים do not rely on the havdalah in shul, and they make havdalah at home for their family.  The Mishnah Berurah rules that this is the proper thing to do.

The ביאור הלכה brings ראשונים and אחרונים who disagree with the halacha of the מחבר and רמ”א.  They are of the opinion that one should first make havdalah and only afterwards light the נרות חנוכה.  The Mishnah Berurah rules that when lighting in shul one should not change from the accepted minhag to light before havdalah.  However when lighting at homeדעביד כמר עביד ודעביד כמר עביד  – both practices are acceptable.  The קיצור שו”ע and the ערוך השלחן both rule that one should first make havdalah.  This was also the minhag of the Chazon Ish and the Steipler zt”l.  The חיי אדם rules that one should first light the נרות.  This was the minhag of the Chasam Sofer.  This was also the minhag of Reb Shlomo Zalman and Reb Elyashiv zt”l.

The explanation in the מחלוקת is as follows; do we say תדיר ושאינו תדיר תדיר קודם – havdalah which is every week takes precedence over נרות חנוכה which is only for eight days?  Or do we say that it is best to push off the end of Shabbos as long as possible?  Even though by lighting the נרות חנוכה one has ended his Shabbos, the אליה רבה explains that until one makes havdalah there is still ריח קדושת נשמת שבת.  Reb Moshe Feinstein zt”l explains that it is כבוד שבת by pushing off mentioning the יציאה of Shabbos.

Reb Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt”l explains the reason there is no machlokes regarding the נרות in shul.  Since lighting in shul is only because of minhag, it is similar to the laining of Shir Hashirim and Rus.  These megillos are lained before Krias Hatorah מפני חביבותן, even though Krias Hatorah is תדיר.  Here too, because the minhag is חביב, we do it first.

The one lighting in shul can only do so since he was already mavdil in Teffilah by saying אתה חוננתנו.  The Mishna Berurah says that if he forgot to be mavdil in Teffilah then he must first say ברוך המבדיל בין קודש לחול.  This is in regard to the lighting in the בית הכנסת.  However as far as the minhag of lighting at home before havdalah, there is a machlokes what one should do if he forgot to be mavdil in Teffilah.  The מגן אברהם rules that one should not say ברוך המבדיל rather he should be מבדיל על הכוס before lighting.  Since many poskim hold one should first make havdalah, in this case when one forgets to be mavdil in Teffilah, he should do like this opinion.  The אליה רבה וחיי אדם both rule that here as well he should also say ברוך המבדיל.

One should light the נרות right after Shabbos is over.  There is a discussion amongst the poskim if one should daven earlier than usual and if he should even end Shabbos earlier than he usually does.  Reb Moshe zt”l rules that one who always keeps seventy two minutes like רבינו תם should also do so on מוצאי שבת חנוכה, even though it is only a חומרא.  Reb Chaim Brisker was מקפיד on רבינו תם even on מוצאי שבת חנוכה.  However he would be מזרז that one should light within half an hour of the end of Shabbos according to רבינו תם.  The Brisker Rav however did not rush to light on מוצאי שבת.  Since anyways one is not lighting at the beginning of שקיעה there is no קפידא to rush.

However many Poskim- Reb Elyashiv, Reb Shlomo Zalman, the Steipler zt’l and Reb Chaim Kanievsky shlit”a are all of the opinion that if one is keeping the zman of רבינו תם only because of חומרא, he should not do so on מוצאי שבת חנוכה.  This was also the practice of the בית הלוי זצ”ל.[1]

Prepared by R’ Avrohom Yehoshua Ziskind


[1] Sources:אור ישראל דיני ימי חנוכה,דרשו,הליכות שלמה

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